Government

(Catholic)

INTRODUCTION

 

Without laws there would be chaos and mayhem. Laws are based on morals passed down through the ages through Judeo-Christian history.

The dignity of human life, common decency, and the support of traditional family values have been the backbone to society and are crucial to society. It has been witnessed and experienced that the break down of the family is the break down of society.

Government laws and the judicial system must uphold the underlining values. Today, in the Twenty First Century, these very values are under attack.

Alarming moral-collapse facts about America

The more a country moves away from God and his Word, the more it morally collapses.


Here are a few alarming facts about the USA about just how far this great nation has fallen.

➤At this point, approximately one out of every three children in the United States lives in a home without a father.

➤Approximately one-third of the entire population of the United States (110 million people) currently has a sexually transmitted disease according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Every single year, there are 20 million new STD cases in America.

➤In Chicago, public school kindergarten teachers are now required to set aside 30 minutes a month for sex education.

➤An astounding 30 percent of all Internet traffic now goes to adult websites. The average high school boy spends two hours on adult websites every single week.

➤The marriage rate in the United States has fallen to an all-time low.  Right now it is sitting at a yearly rate of 6.8 marriages per 1000 people.

➤Right now, there are 70 million Americans that are on mind-altering drugs of one form or another.

➤The number of American babies aborted each year is roughly equal to the number of U.S. military deaths that have occurred in all of the wars that the United States has ever been involved in combined.

-1600

 

A-M

Abolitionism
Abolition of Slave Trade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Am I Not a Man and a Brother?",

1787 medallion designed by Josiah Wedgwood

for the British anti-slavery campaign

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France, who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. He passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, and it was also vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolitionism#First_steps

Stephen Langton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plaster maquette of Stephen Langton by John Thomas at Canterbury Heritage Museum

Stephen Langton (c. 1150 – 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.

 

The dispute between King John of England and Pope Innocent III over his election was a major factor to the crisis which produced Magna Carta in 1215. Cardinal Langton is also credited with having divided the Bible into the standard modern arrangement of chapters used today.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Langton

Magna Carta

ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT, VITAL DOCUMENT OF ALL TIMES:

The MAGNA CARTA
 

A romanticised 19th-century recreation of King John signing Magna Carta

Impact on civil liberties


The Magna Carta is considered one of the most important documents in human history;  vitally important as an early foundation of law in Western society.  


The influence of Magna Carta can be seen in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. 
Lord Denning described it as "the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot".  


At the Federalist Society's 2014 National Lawyers Convention held last November, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia gave a history lesson on the Magna Carta and its influence on American jurisprudence. "Many of the ideals held most sacred in the American imagination originated or at least were first committed to writing 800 years ago," noted Scalia. The man responsible for drafting it's content was Stephen Langton (Archbishop of Canterbury).

 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Langton
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta

In 1687, William Penn published "The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property": being the birth-right of the Free-Born Subjects of England, which contained the first copy of Magna Carta printed on American soil.


The colonists drew on English law books, leading them to an anachronistic interpretation of Magna Carta, believing that it guaranteed trial by jury and habeas corpus.[208]


When American colonists fought against Britain, they were fighting not so much for new freedom, but to preserve liberties and rights that they believed to be enshrined in Magna Carta.[210]


In the late 18th century, the United States Constitution became the supreme law of the land, recalling the manner in which Magna Carta had come to be regarded as fundamental law.[210] 


The Constitution's Fifth Amendment guarantees that "no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law", a phrase that was derived from Magna Carta.[211]


In addition, the Constitution included a similar writ in the Suspension Clause, Article 1, Section 9: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it."[212]


Each of these proclaim that no person may be imprisoned or detained without evidence that he or she committed a crime. 


The Ninth Amendment states that "The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 


The writers of the U.S. Constitution wished to ensure that the rights they already held, such as those that they believed were provided by Magna Carta, would be preserved unless explicitly curtailed.[213][214]


The Supreme Court of the United States has explicitly referenced Lord Coke's analysis of Magna Carta as an antecedent of the Sixth Amendment's right to a speedy trial.[215]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta

 

 

Ralph Turner:  The Thirteen Colonies:

Ralph Turner is an emeritus history professor at the University of Florida. He specializes in the history of medieval England, reigns of Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, and John.

With the thirteen colonies claiming their Magna Carta rights, and the Brit­ish crown defending its prerogatives, it would take on new life, shaping the law and politics of a new nation, the United States of America. 

The list of George III’s injustices in the "Declaration of Independence" of July 1776 echoes provisions of Magna Carta. It declared that the king’s contract with the Amer­icans was broken because he aimed at “the establishment of an absolute tyran­ny over these states.”

 
After the colonists won their inde­pendence and drafted state constitu­tions, the founders, mindful of seven­teenth-century doctrine, accorded those constitutions a lofty position above enacted laws. Their notion of Magna Carta as “fundamental law,” standing above both king and Parliament and unalterable by statute, convinced them to view the new states’ written consti­tutions in a similar manner. 

Later in 1787, the framers drafted a federal Con­stitution as a new fundamental law for the new nation. As the states consid­ered ratifying the federal Constitution, Magna Carta was a central piece of discussions. 

 

Australian law professor Augusto Zimmermann explains the Christian roots:

Common law means a legal system based upon the English legal system; a mixture of customary law, judge-made law and parliamentary law. At least until the early 19th century, the common law was heavily influenced by Christian philosophy.... 

This philosophy argues that there is a divine reason for the existence of fundamental laws, and that such laws are superior to human-made legislation, thus reflecting universal and unchangeable principles by which everyone should live.... 


This assumption was expressed, among other things, in the Magna Carta of 1215....   

 

Magna Carta:

From [the time of Alfred] the kings of England have traditionally recognized their submission to God. 

At their coronations they take an oath before the Archbishop acknowledging the Law of God as the standard of justice, and the rights of the church. 

They are also urged to do justice under God and to govern God’s people fairly. Magna Carta was a development of these themes.

Augusto Zimmermann:

At the time of Magna Carta (1215), a royal judge called Henry de Bracton (d. 1268) wrote a massive treatise on principles of law and justice. 

Bracton is broadly regarded as ‘the father of the common law’, because his book De legibus et consuetudinibus Anglia is one of the most important works on the constitution of medieval England. 

For Bracton, the application of law implies ‘a just sanction ordering virtue and prohibiting its opposite’, which means that the state law can never depart from God’s higher laws. 

As Bracton explains, jurisprudence was ‘the science of the just and unjust’. And he also declared that the state is under God and the law, ‘because the law makes the king.'
 
The Christian faith provided to the people of England a status libertatis (state of liberty) which rested on the Christian presumption that God’s law always works for the good of society. 

A recent piece in the English press also discusses the Christian role in the production of the Magna Carta:

Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, played a central role in drafting the charter, which was signed by King John at Runnymede, Surrey. At least 11 other bishops were present.

A briefing note issued to members of the Synod reads: .....“It is important that the Church’s crucial role in Magna Carta and its rights is not air-brushed out in 2015 – as was the role of Christians in the anti-slave trade celebrations.”


“The church, therefore, was central to the production, preservation and proclamation of Magna Carta. The cathedrals were like a beacon from which the light of the charter shone round the country, thus beginning the process by which it became central to national life,” said Professor Carpenter.


https://billmuehlenberg.com/2019/03/20/a-review-of-christian-foundations-of-the-common-law-3-volumes-by-augusto-zimmermann/

https://billmuehlenberg.com/2013/01/24/a-review-of-western-legal-theory-by-augusto-zimmermann/

https://creation.com/the-christian-foundations-of-the-rule-of-law-in-the-west-a-legacy-of-liberty-and-resistance-against-tyranny


"Satanic lies usually start with harmless-looking temptations, but gradually and subtly lure people into utter darkness and sin. Such sin is then kept in the secret recesses of a person's life."

"A nation which has rejected God will soon also dispense with all his precepts and laws, eventually leaving a society with neither mercy nor justice."

There is such an intense hatred of all things Christian throughout the world today. It is very difficult indeed for Christians to stand strong during these dark times. 

One after another Christians are being sued, harassed, bullied, pursued by the police, or taken to task legally by the secular "lefties". And the trend is increasing and rapid.

This is leading to full-scale persecution of true Christians.  Prayer is our strongest defense and offense.

The Magna Carta forever changed the world, and we still are enjoying the fruit of this overwhelmingly Christian document. 

But the tragedy is, the Western world is quickly renouncing its Christian past. And with it, it is renouncing freedom, democracy and rule of law.*


*   https://www.prophecytoday.uk/comment/society-politics/item/107-magna-carta-and-christian-freedoms.html

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/10964147/Churches-will-use-Magna-Carta-anniversary-to-reassert-Britains-Christian-heritage.html

www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/magna-carta-new-research-sheds-light-on-the-churchs-role-in-publishing-worldfamous-charter-10318826.html

 

N-Z

Francisco de Vitoria
"father of international law"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco de Vitoria OP (c. 1483 – 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Spanish Roman Catholic philosophertheologian, and jurist of Renaissance Spain. He is the founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of just war and international law.

Francisco de Vitoria, was a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development.[187]

 

He has in the past been described by some scholars as one of the "fathers of international law", along with Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius.

 

[2] American jurist Arthur Nussbaum noted that Vitoria was "the first to set forth the notions (though not the terms) of freedom of commerce and freedom of the seas."[3]

He adopted from Aquinas the Roman law concept of ius gentium ("the law of nations"). His defense of American Indians was based on a Scholastic understanding of the intrinsic dignity of man, a dignity he found being violated by Spain's policies in the New World.

In three lectures (relectiones) held between 1537 and 1539 Vitoria concluded that the Indians were rightful owners of their property and that their chiefs validly exercised jurisdiction over their tribes. This had already been the position of Palacios Rubios. Neither the pope nor Charles V had a rightful claim over Indian lives or property. No violent action could be taken against them, nor could their lands or property be seized, unless the Indians had caused harm or injury to the Spanish by violating the latter's lawful rights.[2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Vitoria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role_of_Christianity_in_civilization#Economic_development

 
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